Hiuki and Bil are the two children who can be seen, according to the Eddas they had gone to the well Byrgir to fill their tub Saeg which they carried on the carrying pole Simul, who on their return were snatched up by the Moon, which is why they now travel with him. These kids are the origin of Jack and Jill and also the very same as Jack o’ the Lantern and Will o’ the Wisp. Their names arise from the words 'jakka' which means to wax, and 'bila' which means to wain (Harley 1970: 26).
(Man with Sticks is a widespread version of the Man in the Moon whose appearance is explained in various ways by different cultures. Among Germans he was thought to be put there for working on Sunday (Harley 1969: 21). Sometimes his dog is seen to accompany him. It is similar to the Jack and Jill image though not related to it.)
Mimir the Giant had a drinking horn from which he drew mead from his well, from which he gained wisdom, beheaded by the god Odin, who sought from him that very same wisdom and who in a variation was to have sacrificed his eye for a drink. Only the head of Mimir is thus visible in the well, which is the Moon, the phases of which mimic the sun shining into a well.
Heiddraupnir’s Skull is associated with the mead. The Eddas refer to the drink as coming from the skull of Heiddraupnir and Hoddrofnir’s horn, which means the Moon. The skull is visible, and while the horn could be the crescent it is more likely a reference to the Moon itself, which explains the phases for the same reason a well would.
The Two Swans are associated with the Well of Fate, ultimately equivalent to the Well of Mimir, both are the Moon, and Urd is described as rising from his well as Mimir is from his, although Urd (Fate) is often more associated with the Norns. Within the Eddas these swans are said to have been progenitors of all swans on the earth.
Moongarm is a giant wolf from Ironwood who like Nidhogg was a devourer of corpses, who would swallow the Sun and splatter the heavens with blood. Equivalent to the dog Garm and also comparable to Fenris, who acted in similar manner: freed at Ragnarok and stretch his jaws between heaven and earth. Essentially it arises from the notion that the Moon was a wolf who would swallow the Sun (Odin, Tyr) as in during an eclipse. This image is a very likely origin of the connection between the Moon and lycanthropy.
Fenrir is a giant wolf, essentially the same as Moongarm but specifically known to have been under the keeping of Tyr, who sacrificed his hand in order that he might be bound upon the island Lyngvi within a black sea Amsvartnir, which appears to be descriptive of the Moon in the night sky. It is possible that the story of the hand can be explained by what appears to be a hand within the wolf’s throat.
Gunnlod is the maiden who was the daughter of Suttung, who guarded the Mead of Poetry within a cave called Hnitbiorg. Within the myth Odin either entered or exited through a hole he drilled and escaped in the form of a snake. Gunnlod is seen afterwards, holding the bowl with the hole behind her. Perhaps the mottled form above her head was viewed as a bridal wreath. Thus are all the details encapsulated here. The name Hnitbiorg (clashing rocks) implies that it has an opening and closing entrance, which explains the phases of the Moon. It is equivalent to the “lady reading” illusion, also known as the Woman in the Moon.
(Pandora is the first woman of Greek mythology and has been suggested to be the same Woman in the Moon by John Lilly (Harley 1969: 56). Essentially the same figure as Gunnlod, this vase depiciton likely arises out of an artistic tradition that originated with the Moon image. She too is depicted as a bride but here holding her box. It is not as certain how closely the myths themselves relate: the mead certainly does not play the same role that the evils unleashed do in the Pandora story, although the final object remaining, often translated 'hope', could also mean 'prophecy'. Some have suggested that the bringing of the mead down to mankind is essentially the same as the bringing down of fire by the Titan Prometheus. Prometheus, whose name means 'forethought', certainly resembles Odin or the wise primeval giant of Germanic mythology, as originator of mankind.)
Heimdall is the principle god of the Moon among the Germans, which was viewed as being masculine by them, unlike the goddess Luna among the Romans. It is equivalent to the “Man in the Moon” illusion. The half moon was thought to be Heimdall’s ears, the crescent his horn Giallarhorn, and the quarter moon his shining teeth.
Heimdall’s Doom is a human head that was to have cut into him and caused his end. Thus just as the sword was ‘man’s doom’ the head was known as ‘Heimdall’s doom’ or ‘Heimdall’s sword’. This is equivalent to the “Woman in the Moon” illusion.